Call for Paper

CAE solicits original research papers for the July 2021 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is June 30, 2021.

Read More

A Literature Review of the Human Body as a Communication Medium using RedTacton

Yusuf Perwej. Published in Communications.

Communications on Applied Electronics
Year of Publication: 2016
Publisher: Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Authors: Yusuf Perwej

Yusuf Perwej. Article: A Literature Review of the Human Body as a Communication Medium using RedTacton. Communications on Applied Electronics 4(9):7-17, April 2016. Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA. BibTeX

	author = {Yusuf Perwej},
	title = {Article: A Literature Review of the Human Body as a Communication Medium using RedTacton},
	journal = {Communications on Applied Electronics},
	year = {2016},
	volume = {4},
	number = {9},
	pages = {7-17},
	month = {April},
	note = {Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA}


At present many technologies for networking are known and are in use. These technologies connect people, objects and other networks together so as to dispense data and thus make information ready for access. In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of dispensing data. In this paper, we introduce novel networking technology called RedTacton was announced by NTT labs from Japan in 2005, which makes use of human body surface as communication medium when exchanging data among people, objects and networks. The RedTacton takes a different technical viewpoint. Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data, RedTacton uses feeble electric fields on the surface of the body as a transmission medium. Electric-field communication is dissimilar from orthodox wireless or infrared communication which simply does not rely on electromagnetic or light wave to transmit data because it uses the electric field procreate on the surface of the human body. This is mainly developed to conquer an interposing of unwanted signal in intensive places has become a major issue and the better solution to this can be, a human body functioning as non-stop transmitter and receiver. The RedTacton communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or toes. Red Tacton can be used in any media including water, glass, wood, shoes and clothing as well etc. The electric field/Photonics method employed by Red Tacton is preferable to conventional methods in terms of communication distance, speed, and interactivity. In this paper, I will discuss about RedTacton, and it’s working states, body coupled communications, transceiver and applications of RedTacton in various fields.


  1. Wikipedia.(February 2009). Red Tacton [Online]. Available:
  3. Kotadia, B.; Vibhor, A.; "REDTACTON”, Electronics & Communication Department, MIT IEEE Report
  4. Redtacton-IEEE.ReportTechnicalpapers.50webs.
  5. M. Shinagawa, M. Fukumoto, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A nearfield- sensing transceiver for intra-body communication based on the electro-optic effect,” IEEE Trans. IM, Vol. 53, No. 6, pp. 1533-1538, 2004.
  6. Kohei Nagata, Yuichi Kado, “Transmission Characteristics between In-body and On-body Transceivers Using MHz-band Near-field Coupling Technology” ,IEEE, 7th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT) 2013.
  7. Simon Attard, Saviour Zammit,” Effect of human movement on the Body Coupled Communications channel in Body Area Networks” ,IEEE, 1-4 July 2013.
  8. T. G. Zimmerman, "Personal Area Networks: Near-field intrabody communication,"IBM Systems Journal, vol.35, no.3.4, pp.609,617, 1996.
  9. N. Matsushita, S. Tajima, Y. Ayatsuka, and J. Rekimoto. Wearable key: Device for personalizing nearby environment. In ISCWC00, 2000.
  10. H.J. Yoo, S.J. Song, N.Cho, and H.J. Kim. Low energy on-body communication for bsn. In Body sensors networks 2007.
  11. J. Hwang, J. Sung, C. Hyoung, J. Kim, D. Park, and S. Kang, “Analysis of signal interference in human body communication using human body as transmission medium,” in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2006., July 2006, pp.495–498.
  12. A. Sasaki, M. Shinagawa, and K. Ochiai. Principles and demonstration of intrabody communication with a sensitive nelectrooptic sensor. IEEE Transactions on instrumentation and measurement, 58(2), february 2009.
  13. L.Cho, L.Chan, J.Bae, and H.Yoo. A 60 kb/s - 10 mb/sadaptive frequency hopping transciever for interferance-resilient body channel communication. IEEE Journal of Solid state circuits, 44(3), March 2009.
  14. Baldus, H.; Corroy, S.; Fazzi, A.; Klabunde, K.; Schenk, T., "Human-centric connectivity enabled by body-coupled communications,"Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol.47, no.6, pp.172,178, June 2009.
  15. Patel, M.; Jianfeng Wang, "Applications, challenges, and prospective in emerging body area networking technologies," Wireless Communications, IEEE , vol.17, no.1, pp.80,88, February 2010.
  16. Wegmueller, M.; Lehnert, A.; Froehlcih, J.; Reutemann, R.; Oberle, M.; Felber, N.; Kuster, N.; Hess, O.; Fichtner, Wolfgang, "Measurement System for the Characterization of the Human Body as a Communication Channel at Low Frequency,"Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,. IEEE-EMBS 2005. 27th Annual International Conference of the, vol., no., pp.3502,3505,
  17. T. Schenk, N. S. Mazloum, L. Tan, and P. Rutten, “Experimental characterization of the body-coupled communications channel,” in ISWCS 2008, October 2008.
  18. Wegmueller, M.S.; Kuhn, A.; Froehlich, J.; Oberle, M.; Felber, N.; Kuster, N.; Fichtner, Wolfgang, "An Attempt to Model the Human Body as a Communication Channel,"Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, vol.54, no.10, pp.1851,1857, Oct. 2007.
  19. M. Fukumoto, M. Shinagawa, K. Ochiai, and H. Kyuragi, “A near-field-sensing transceiver for intrabody communication based on the electrooptic effect,” in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 53, December 2004, pp. 1533–1538.
  20. T.C.W. Schenk, N.S. Mazloum, L. Tan, and P. Rutten. Experimental characterization of the body-coupled communications channel. In International Symposium onWireless Communication Systems (ISWCS 2008), 2008.
  21. M. Shinagawa, K.Ochiai, H.Sakamoto, and T.Asahi.Human area networking technology: Redtacton. NTTReview, 3(5), May 2005.
  22. H. Goldstein, “NTT’s shaky approach to data transfer targets a solved problem,” IEEE Spectrum January 2006, pp. 24–25, 2006.
  23. K. Doi, M. Koyama, Y. Suzuki, and T. Nishimura, “Development of the communication module used human body as the transmission line,” [sic] Proc. of Human Interface Symposium 2001, pp. 389–392, 2001 (in Japanese).
  24. Ryusuke Kawano, Fumiaki Morisawa, Mitsuru Shinagawa, and Yuichi Kado,” LSIs for an Advanced Compact Electric-field Communication Module”, NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories Atsugi-shi, 243-0198 Japan, Vol. 8, No. 3, Mar. 2010.
  25. Mitsuru Shinagawa, Katsuyuki Ochiai, Hideki Sakamoto, and Toshiaki Asahi,” Human Area Networking Technology: RedTacton”, NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, Vol. 3, No. 5, May 2005
  26. Hideki Goromaru, Minoru Ikeda, and Yasuhiro Hosoda,” Firmware Technology for Human-body Near-field Communication”, NTT Technical Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010
  27. Saheed A. Adewuyi, Idowu O. Aiyedun, Oluwafemi T. Balogun,” RedTacton: Enhancing Ubiquitous Computing Services”, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013 Vol II, WCE 2013, July 3 - 5, 2013, London, U.K.
  28. Yusuf Perwej , Dr. K. Haq, U. Jaleel , S. Saxena , “Some drastic improvements found in the analysis of routing protocol for the Bluetooth technology using scatternet” Special Issue on The International Conference on Computing, Communications and Information Technology Applications (CCITA-2010) , Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal (UBICC) Seoul, South Korea, Volume CCITA-2010, Number 5 , pages 86-95, ISSN Online 1992-8424, ISSN Print 1994-4608.
  29. Yuichi Kado, Mitsuru Shinagawa,” RedTacton Near-body Electric-field Communications Technology and Its Applications”, NTT Technical Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010.


Body Coupled Communications, RedTacton, Intrabody, Electric Field, Capacitive Body Coupling, Transceiver.