CFP last date
03 June 2024
Reseach Article

Assessing Thinking Strategy of Numeracy Primary School Pupils

by Nor'ain Mohd Tajudin, Siti Rahaimah Ali, Noraini Idris
Communications on Applied Electronics
Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Volume 4 - Number 2
Year of Publication: 2016
Authors: Nor'ain Mohd Tajudin, Siti Rahaimah Ali, Noraini Idris

Nor'ain Mohd Tajudin, Siti Rahaimah Ali, Noraini Idris . Assessing Thinking Strategy of Numeracy Primary School Pupils. Communications on Applied Electronics. 4, 2 ( January 2016), 6-11. DOI=10.5120/cae2016652023

@article{ 10.5120/cae2016652023,
author = { Nor'ain Mohd Tajudin, Siti Rahaimah Ali, Noraini Idris },
title = { Assessing Thinking Strategy of Numeracy Primary School Pupils },
journal = { Communications on Applied Electronics },
issue_date = { January 2016 },
volume = { 4 },
number = { 2 },
month = { January },
year = { 2016 },
issn = { 2394-4714 },
pages = { 6-11 },
numpages = {9},
url = { },
doi = { 10.5120/cae2016652023 },
publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
address = {New York, USA}
%0 Journal Article
%1 2023-09-04T19:54:00.360613+05:30
%A Nor'ain Mohd Tajudin
%A Siti Rahaimah Ali
%A Noraini Idris
%T Assessing Thinking Strategy of Numeracy Primary School Pupils
%J Communications on Applied Electronics
%@ 2394-4714
%V 4
%N 2
%P 6-11
%D 2016
%I Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA

This study discusses the understanding level of numeracy based on the Model of Understanding Numeracy Level. Four stages in the model are de-coding, meaning-making, applications and analysis. The study employed a qualitative descriptive research. A total sample of 200 Primary Four, Year 5 pupils (9-10-year-old) from 20 Malaysian primary schools at the District of Kota Bharu, Kelantan was randomly selected for this study. The numeracy levels were identified by mathematics teachers’ classroom observation assessment and researchers’ observation through clinical interview. The findings showed that majority of the pupils (70 pupils) were at the application level identified by mathematics teachers’ classroom observation assessment. However, majority of the pupils were at de-coding (70 pupils) and analysis (65 pupils) levels identified by researchers’ observation through clinical interview conducted after the numeracy module was introduced to the pupils. Some excellence pupils were able to achieve the level of application and analysis. The findings also revealed that more pupils can reach the analysis level for Addition topic as compared to Division, Multiplication and Subtraction topics. This study contributes to the knowledge development and practice of teaching and learning, namely in numeracy understanding. The numeracy understanding model can elicit ideas to solve the real-life problems hence pupils will be confident and creative in solving mathematical problems.

  1. Ministry of Education (2010). Rancangan Malaysia Kesepuluh:Bab 5, Membangun dan Mengekalkan Model Insan Bertaraf Dunia. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.
  2. Luke, A., & Freebody, P. (2009). Critical numeracy, Numeracy in the news, Australia; Faculty of Education, University of Tasmania.
  3. Ball, D. L. (2002). Mathematical proficiency for all students: Toward a strategic research and development program in mathematics education. USA: RAND Education/Science and Teknology Policy Institute.
  4. Kilpatrick, J., Swafforce & Findell, B. (2001). All adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washingston DC: National Academic Press.
  5. Ludlow, A. S. (2004). Metaphor and numerical diagrams in the arithmetical activity of a fourth grade class. Journal Research Mathematics Education, 35, 34.
  6. Munn, P. (2005). Young children’s rights to numeracy. International Journal of Early Childhood, 37( 3), 61-77.
  7. Watson, J. M., Callingham, R., & Donne, J. (2008). Establishing pedogogical content knowledge for teaching statistic, In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, C. Reading & A. Rossman (2008), Joint ICMI/IASE Study: Teaching Statictics in School Mathematics. Proceedings of the ICMI Study 18 and 2008 IASE Round Table Conference. Monterrey: ICMI and IASE and JASE. Available from
  8. Gal, I. (2002). Adult numeracy development:theory, research, practice. Cresskill,NJ: Hampton Press.
  9. Anghileri, J. (2000). Teaching number sense. New York: Continum International Publication Group
  10. Steffe, L. P. (2009). Teaching experiment methodology: Underlying principles and essencial element In R.Lesh & A.E. Kelly. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
  11. Siti Rahaimah Ali & Noraini Idris. (2013) A model to identify the level of numeracy understanding of primary school pupils: a case study. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains & Matematik Malaysia,3(2), 24-42.
  12. Carpenter, T. P., Moser, J.M., & Bebout, H.C. (1988). Representation of addition and subtraction word problems. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 19(4), 345-357.
  13. White, A. L. (2010). Numeracy, literacy and newman’s error analysis. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Shouheast Asia. 3(2), 129-148.
  14. Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (2005). Research methods in education (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Index Terms

Computer Science
Information Sciences


Model of Understanding Numeracy Level de-coding meaning-making application analysis Year Four primary school pupils mathematics teaching and learning.