Call for Paper

CAE solicits original research papers for the July 2021 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is June 30, 2021.

Read More

Effect of Swastika Slot in Square Fractal Antenna

Manisha Narang, Parveen Singla, K.K. Paliwal. Published in Wireless.

Communications on Applied Electronics
Year of Publication: 2016
Publisher: Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Authors: Manisha Narang, Parveen Singla, K.K. Paliwal

Manisha Narang, Parveen Singla and K K Paliwal. Article: Effect of Swastika Slot in Square Fractal Antenna. Communications on Applied Electronics 4(8):46-49, April 2016. Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA. BibTeX

	author = {Manisha Narang and Parveen Singla and K.K. Paliwal},
	title = {Article: Effect of Swastika Slot in Square Fractal Antenna},
	journal = {Communications on Applied Electronics},
	year = {2016},
	volume = {4},
	number = {8},
	pages = {46-49},
	month = {April},
	note = {Published by Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA}


In the modern wireless communication systems, antennas of multiple bands, smaller size and wider bandwidth are high in demands to meet the requirement of multiple applications. This has initiated the research in new antenna fields; fractal antenna theory is one among them. Its unique properties such as self-similarity and space filling lead to multiband and size reduction characteristics. Due to smaller size and multiband characteristics fractal antenna has drawn the attention of researchers. Fractal antennas have more electrical length, improved SWR and impedance in a reduced physical area. The aim of this work is to design an antenna of square shape with swastika slot for multiband characteristics and efficient gain. The proposed fractal antenna has the dimensions of 22mm x 22mm. The antenna is fabricated on FR4epoxy substrate with dielectric constant ((r) =4.4 and thickness 1.5676mm, which is easily available in market and cheap, thus making antenna cost effective. The structure has been designed using four swastika shapes in between two square rings on two sides. In this antenna only single iteration with the scaling factor 0.5 has been done to see the effect of iteration on the geometry. The designing and simulation of the antenna has been done using Ansoft HFSS software. The designed antenna resonates at seven different frequencies 4.9GHz, 5.8GHz, 8GHz, 13.8GHz, 22.3GHz, 26GHz and 27.6GHz. The Gains at these frequencies are 5.8099dBi, 1.6628dBi, -2.0782dBi, 3.6563dBi, 4.7219dBi, 5.2740dBi and 7.0985dBi respectively. This antenna can be used in different C and Ku band applications such as satellite and long distance telecommunication.


  1. Ahmed B.H., Nornikman H, Aziz, Abd M.Z.A., Othman, M.A. and Othman A.R, 2013. “Tri-band Minkowski Island Patch Antenna with Complementary Split Ring Resonator at the Ground Plane”, 13th Conference on Microwave Techniques COMITE, Pardubice, Czech Republic, IEEE, pp. 46- 51.
  2. Anoop S.R., Ajayan K.K., Baiju M.R., and Krishnakumar V., 2010 “Multiband Behavioural Analysis of a Higher Order Fractal Patch Antenna” International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), pp. 823-827.
  3. Arora, Sakshi., Gupta, Gaurav, and Gupta, Vikas, 2013. “Reduction in the Resonant Frequency of a Simple Square Patch Antenna by Loading an Asymmetrical E-Shaped Shaped in Patch”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 7, pp. 672-678.
  4. Azari, Abolfaz, Ismail, Alyani, Aduwati., and Hashim, Fazirulhisyam, 2013. “A New Super Wideband Fractal Monopole-Dielectric Resonator Antenna”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, pp. 1014-1016.
  5. Balanis C.A., 2008. “Fundamental Parameters and Definitions for Antennas”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagations, Vol. 17, No. 3.
  6. Baliarda, Carles Puente, Romeu, Jordi., Pous, Rafael., and Cardama, Angel., 1998. “On the behaviour of the Sierpinski Multiband Fractal Antenna”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 517- 524.
  7. Behera, S. K., “Novel Tuned Rectangular Patch Antenna As a Load for Phase Power Combining” Ph.D Thesis, Jadavpur University, Kolkata.
  8. Best, Steven R, 2002. “On the Significance of Self-Similar Fractal Geometry in Determining the Multiband Behavior of the Sierpinski Gasket Antenna”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 1, pp. 22-25.
  9. Borja C, Romeu, J., 2000. “Multiband Sierpinski fractal patch antenna”, IEEE AP-S Intemational Symposium, IEEE, vol.3, pp.1708-1711.
  10. Cheng, Hong-Qi, Tian, Li-Bin, and Hu, Bin-Jie, 2007. “Compact Circularly Polarized Square Microstrip Fractal Antenna with Symmetrical T-slits”, International Conference on Digital Object Identifier, Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, pp. 6130616.
  11. Kumar, Alkesh., Khatri, M., and Jadhav, J.B., 2012.“Teaching tools for microstrip patch antenna design”, Conference on Advances in Communication and Computing, Maharashtra, India, World Journal of Science and Technology, pp. 104-107.
  12. Gianviffwb, John P., and Rahmat-Samii, Yahya., 2002. “Fractal Antennas:A Novel Antenna Miniaturization Technique and Applications” IEEE Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1.
  13. Khidre, Ahmed. Lee, Kai Fang., Yang, Fan., and Eisherbeni, Ate'., 2010. “Wideband Circularly Polarized E-Shaped Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 52, No.5.
  14. Prasad, R.V. Harra., Purushottam, Y., Misra, V.C., and Ashok, N., 2000. “Microstrip Fractal Patch Antenna for Multiband Communication” Electronics Letters, Vol. 36, No. 14, pp. 1179-1180.


Fractal antenna, SWR, Ansoft HFSS software, Swastika slot, Iteration, Reflection coefficient, Gain.