Call for Paper

CAE solicits original research papers for the April 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is March 31, 2023.

Read More

A Comprehensive Research Study on 5G Backhauling: Solutions, Requirements and Challenges

Deepa T. Chitra Kiran N.. Published in Networks.

Communications on Applied Electronics
Year of Publication: 2019
Publisher: Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Authors: Deepa T. Chitra Kiran N.

Deepa Chitra Kiran T N.. A Comprehensive Research Study on 5G Backhauling: Solutions, Requirements and Challenges. Communications on Applied Electronics 7(26):23-31, February 2019. BibTeX

	author = {Deepa T. Chitra Kiran N.},
	title = {A Comprehensive Research Study on 5G Backhauling: Solutions, Requirements and Challenges},
	journal = {Communications on Applied Electronics},
	issue_date = {February 2019},
	volume = {7},
	number = {26},
	month = {Feb},
	year = {2019},
	issn = {2394-4714},
	pages = {23-31},
	numpages = {9},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/cae2019652814},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


The 5th generation cellular technology i.e. 5G network is considered as most emerging wireless technology to enable the IoTs. Nevertheless, the key challenge is to offer a ubiquitous and efficient backhaul networking to small cell devices. There are several backhaul solutions are available which can address the backhaul challenges for 5G networks. In this context, the present survey study providing a detail overview on 5G infrastructure with respect to different architectural concept followed by different backhaul solutions. A qualitative review on prior backhaul solutions and different standards are discussed. Furthermore, highlighting perceives solutions over 5G backhaul networks, which are not apparent when backhaul networking is examined as individual part of 5G technology. This comprehensive survey study is key in exploring the significant catalysts which are supposed to mutually cover the way to solve the new wireless backhaul challenge. In the last, have defined key points generated from existing solution and providing consolidated research directions for new 5G backhaul network deployment.


  1. Dahlman E, Mildh G, Parkvall S, Peisa J, Sachs J, Selén Y. 5G radio access. Ericsson Review. 2014;91:42-48
  2. Sawanobori TK. The Next Generation of Wireless: 5G Leadership in the U.S. Washington, DC, USA: CTIA; 2016
  3. Cisco 5G Vision Series: Laying the Foundation for New Technologies, Use Cases, and Business Models. Cisco; 2016. 05G%20Vision%20Series_WP_v3a.pdf
  4. Understanding 5G: Perspectives on future technological advancements in mobile. GSMA Intelligence. December; 2014. 5g.pdf&download
  5. Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2016–2021. Cisco; 2017. rovider/visualnetworking-index-vni/mobile-white-paper-c11- 20862.html.
  6. Docomo 5G White Paper. NTT Docomo, Inc; 2014.
  7. Ericsson White Paper: 5G Systems. Ericsson; 2017.
  8. 5G Vision. DMC R&D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd; 2015.
  9. Palattella MR, Dohler M, Grieco A, Rizzo G, Torsner J, Engel T, et al. Internet of things in the 5G era: Enablers, architecture, and business models. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. March 2016;34:510-527
  10. Skouby KE, Lynggaard P. Smart home and smart city solutions enabled by 5G, IoT, AAI and CoT services. In: Presented at the 2014 International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I); Mysore, India
  11. 10 Key Rules of 5G Deployment-Enabling 1 Tbit/S/km2 in 2030. Nokia Networks;2015.
  12. Jaber, Mona, Muhammad Ali Imran, Rahim Tafazolli, and Anvar Tukmanov. "5G backhaul challenges and emerging research directions: A survey." IEEE access 4 (2016): 1743-1766.
  13. N. J. Gomes, P. Chanclou, P. Turnbull, A. Magee, and V. Jungnickel, “Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet,” Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 26, pp. 50–58, 2015.
  14. C.-L. I, Y. Yuan, J. Huang, S. Ma, C. Cui, and R. Duan, “Rethink fronthaul for soft RAN,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 82–88, 2015.
  15. 3GPP, “An interview with Philippe Reininger - RAN3 chairman,” 2015.
  16. H. Raza, “A brief survey of radio access network backhaul evolution: Part i,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 49, pp. 164 – 171, Jun 2011.
  17. H. Raza, “A brief survey of radio access network backhaul evolution: Part ii,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 51, pp. 170 – 177, May 2013.
  18. O. Tipmongkolsilp, S. Zaghloul, and A. Jukan, “The evolution of cellular backhaul technologies: Current issues and future trends,” Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, vol. 13, pp. 97 – 113, First Quarter 2011.
  19. Small Cell Forum, “Backhaul technologies for small cells: Use cases, requirements and solution,” Tech. Rep. 049.01.01, Feb. 2013.
  20. 5G empowering vertical industries (February 2016)
  21. Redana, Simone, A. Kaloxylos, A. Galis, P. Rost, and V. Jungnickel. "View on 5g architecture." White paper of the 5G-PPP architecture WG (2016).
  22. Ji, Jiequ, Kun Zhu, Ran Wang, Bing Chen, and Chen Dai. "Energy Efficient Caching in Backhaul-Aware Cellular Networks with Dynamic Content Popularity." Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 2018 (2018).
  23. Yousaf, Faqir Zarrar, and Tarik Taleb. "Fine-grained resource-aware virtual network func-tion management for 5G carrier cloud." IEEE Network 30.2 (2016): 110-115.
  24. Li, Xi, Ramon Casellas, Giada Landi, Antonio de la Oliva, Xavier Costa-Perez, Andres Garcia-Saavedra, Thomas Deiss, Luca Cominardi, and Ricard Vilalta. "5G-crosshaul network slicing: Enabling multi-tenancy in mobile transport networks." IEEE Communications Magazine 55, no. 8 (2017): 128-137.
  25. I. D. Silva, G. G. Mildh, A. Kaloxylos, et el, “Impact of Network Slicing on 5G Radio Access Networks”, EuCNC 2016, Athens.
  26. Moens, Hendrik, and Filip De Turck. "VNF-P: A model for efficient placement of virtualized network functions." Network and Service Management (CNSM), 2014 10th International Conference on. IEEE, 2014.
  27. “5G Backhaul Vendors Have Opportunity, Work to do”,, Retrievd on 21th Jan-2019
  28. SONATA Deliverable D2.2 “Architecture Design” – December 2015.
  29. ETSI, Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Management and Orchestration, ETSI GS NFV-MAN 001 V1.1.1 (2014-12)
  30. EU PROJECT METIS-II, 5G RAN Architecture and Functional Design White Paper,
  31. A. Osseiran, F. Boccardi, V. Braun, K. Kusume, P. Marsch, M. Maternia, O. Queseth, M. Schellmann, H. Schotten, H. Taoka, H. Tullberg, M. A. Uusitalo, B. Timus, M. Fallgren, „Scenarios for the 5G Mobile and Wireless Communications: The Vision of the METIS Project, IEEE Comun. Magazine, vol. 52, no. 5, pp.26-35, May, 2014.
  32. Costa-Perez, Xavier, Andres Garcia-Saavedra, Xi Li, Thomas Deiss, Oliva Delgado, Andrea Di Giglio, and Alain Mourad. "5G-Crosshaul: an SDN/NFV integrated fronthaul/backhaul transport network architecture." (2017).
  33. Cavaliere, Fabio, Paola Iovanna, Josep Mangues-Bafalluy, Jorge Baranda, José Núñez-Martínez, Kun-Yi Lin, Hsien-Wen Chang et al. "Towards a unified fronthaul-backhaul data plane for 5G The 5G-Crosshaul project approach." Computer Standards & Interfaces 51 (2017): 56-62.
  34. Raza H. A brief survey of radio access network backhaul evolution: Part I. IEEE Communications Magazine. 2011;49:164-171
  35. Raza H. A brief survey of radio access network backhaul evolution: Part II. IEEE Communications Magazine. 2013;51:170-177.
  36. Bojic D, Sasaki E, Cvijetic N, Wang T, Kuno J, Lessmann J, et al. Advanced wireless and optical technologies for small-cell mobile backhaul with dynamic software-defined management. IEEE Communications Magazine. 2013;51:86-93.
  37. Siddique U, Tabassum H, Hossain E, Kim DI. Wireless backhauling of 5G small cells: Challenges and solution approaches. IEEEWireless Communications. 2015;22:22-31.
  38. 5G Vision.DMC R&D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd; 2015.
  39. NGMN 5G White Paper. NGMN; 2015.
  40. Ahamed, Md Maruf, and Saleh Faruque. "5G Backhaul: Requirements, Challenges, and Emerging Technologies." In Broadband Communications Networks-Recent Advances and Lessons from Practice. IntechOpen, 2018.
  41. Phuc, Trinh Viet. "Channel Modeling for Hybrid Free-Space Optics/Radio Wireless Systems for Fifth-Generation (5G) Mobile Backhaul Networks." PhD diss., The University of Aizu, 2017.
  42. Akpakwu, Godfrey Anuga, Bruno J. Silva, Gerhard P. Hancke, and Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz. "A survey on 5G networks for the Internet of Things: Communication technologies and challenges." IEEE Access 6 (2018): 3619-3647.
  43. Akpakwu, Godfrey Anuga, Bruno J. Silva, Gerhard P. Hancke, and Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz. "A survey on 5G networks for the Internet of Things: Communication tGupta, Akhil, and Rakesh Kumar Jha. "A survey of 5G network: Architecture and emerging technologies." IEEE access 3 (2015): 1206-1232.echnologies and challenges." IEEE Access 6 (2018): 3619-3647.
  44. Al Orainy, Abdullah A. "Wireless backhauling for 5G small cell networks." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering 10, no. 2 (2016): 267-270.
  45. 5G PPP Architecture Working Group. "View on 5G architecture." White Paper, July (2016).
  46. Feng, Wei, Yong Li, Depeng Jin, Li Su, and Sheng Chen. "Millimetre-wave backhaul for 5G networks: Challenges and solutions." Sensors 16, no. 6 (2016): 892.
  47. Bartelt, Jens, Peter Rost, Dirk Wubben, Johannes Lessmann, Bruno Melis, and Gerhard Fettweis. "Fronthaul and backhaul requirements of flexibly centralized radio access networks." IEEE Wireless Communications 22, no. 5 (2015): 105-111.
  48. Elshaer, Hisham, Federico Boccardi, Mischa Dohler, and Ralf Irmer. "Load & backhaul aware decoupled downlink/uplink access in 5G systems." In Communications (ICC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 5380-5385. IEEE, 2015.
  49. H. Elshaer, F. Boccardi, M. Dohler and R. Irmer. “Downlink and Uplink Decoupling: a Disruptive Architectural Design for 5G Networks.” IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2014, Accepted. Available:
  50. R. J. Weiler et al., ``Enabling 5G backhaul and access with millimeterwaves,'' in Proc. Eur. Conf. Netw. Commun. (EuCNC), Jun. 2014, pp. 15.
  51. J. Allen and F. Chevalier, ``Report for VodafoneMobile backhaul market: Phase 1 report,'' Analysys Mason, Cambridge, U.K., Tech. Rep., 2014.
  52. J. Allen and F. Chevalier, ``Report for VodafoneMobile backhaul market: Phase 2 report,'' Analysys Mason, Cambridge, U.K., Tech. Rep. 39013-215, 2014.
  53. Rost, Peter, and Athul Prasad. "Opportunistic hybrid ARQ—Enabler of centralized-RAN over nonideal backhaul." IEEE Wireless Communications Letters 3, no. 5 (2014): 481-484.
  54. Jens Bartelt,"Definition of PHY layer approaches that are applicable to RANaaS and a holistic design of backhaul and access networ", iJoin Infso-ICT, 2014.
  55. Ge, Xiaohu, Hui Cheng, Mohsen Guizani, and Tao Han. "5G wireless backhaul networks: challenges and research advances." IEEE Network 28, no. 6 (2014): 6-11.
  56. Islam, Muhammad Nazmul, Ashwin Sampath, Atul Maharshi, Ozge Koymen, and Narayan B. Mandayam. "Wireless backhaul node placement for small cell networks." In Information Sciences and Systems (CISS), 2014 48th Annual Conference on, pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2014.
  57. Chen, Daniel C., Tony QS Quek, and Marios Kountouris. "Backhauling in heterogeneous cellular networks: Modeling and tradeoffs." IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 14, no. 6 (2015): 3194-3206.
  58. Zhao, Jian, Tony QS Quek, and Zhongding Lei. "Heterogeneous cellular networks using wireless backhaul: Fast admission control and large system analysis." IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 33, no. 10 (2015): 2128-2143.
  59. Bojic, Dejan, Eisaku Sasaki, Neda Cvijetic, Ting Wang, Junichiro Kuno, Johannes Lessmann, Stefan Schmid, Hiroyasu Ishii, and Shinya Nakamura. "Advanced wireless and optical technologies for small-cell mobile backhaul with dynamic software-defined management." IEEE Communications Magazine 51, no. 9 (2013): 86-93.
  60. Robson, J. "A white paper by the ngmn alliance: Small cell backhaul requirements." Next Generation Mobile Networks, Tech. Rep. (2012).
  61. T. J. Zhao, Quek, and Z. Lei, “Heterogeneous Cellular Networks Using Wireless Backhaul: Fast Admission Control and Large System Analysis,” IEEE JSAC, 2015.
  62. Y. Shi et al., “A Flexible Wireless Backhaul Solution for Emerging Small Cells Networks,” IEEE Int’l. Conf. Signal Processing, Commun. and Computing, Aug. 2014, pp. 591–96.
  63. X. Yi, D. Kerret, and D. Gesbert, “The DoF of Network MIMO with Backhaul Delays,” IEEE ICC, June 2013, pp. 3318–22.
  64. S. Samarakoon et al., “Backhaulaware Interference Management in the Uplink of Wireless Small Cell Networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 12, no. 11, Nov. 2013, pp. 5813–25.
  65. J. Zhao, T. Q. S. Quek, and Z. Lei, “Coordinated Multipoint Transmission with Limited Backhaul Data Transfer,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 12, no. 6, June 2013, pp. 2762–75.
  66. Small Cell Forum, “Backhaul Technologies for Small Cells, Use Cases, Requirements and Solutions,” white paper, Feb. 2013.
  67. S. Singh et al., “Tractable Model for Rate in Self-Backhauled Millimeter Wave Cellular Networks,” IEEE JSAC, 2015


5G network, Fronthaul, Backhaul, C-RAN, Microwave, Millimeter Wave, Small cell.