Call for Paper

CAE solicits original research papers for the May 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is April 30, 2023.

Read More

Securing IoT Systems using Blockchain Algorithms

Osama Emam, Hanan Fahmy, Menna Mamdouh. Published in Algorithms.

Communications on Applied Electronics
Year of Publication: 2020
Publisher: Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Authors: Osama Emam, Hanan Fahmy, Menna Mamdouh

Osama Emam, Hanan Fahmy and Menna Mamdouh. Securing IoT Systems using Blockchain Algorithms. Communications on Applied Electronics 7(34):10-17, September 2020. BibTeX

	author = {Osama Emam and Hanan Fahmy and Menna Mamdouh},
	title = {Securing IoT Systems using Blockchain Algorithms},
	journal = {Communications on Applied Electronics},
	issue_date = {September 2020},
	volume = {7},
	number = {34},
	month = {Sep},
	year = {2020},
	issn = {2394-4714},
	pages = {10-17},
	numpages = {8},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/cae2020652871},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


Internet of Things (IoT) is an advanced computing network where all physical objects are connected to the internet. All these objects are able to communicate and interact with each other using many technologies such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology, wireless technologies and other sensors technologies. Security concept is the main concern to ensure the sustainable development in IoT and to achieve confidentiality, Integrity, Availability (CIA) and Privacy. Blockchain (BC) is a technology based on the concept of trust and security that is the base of in the cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. BC has three main pillars of transparency, immutability and distributed DB. Nowadays, Blockchain is paving the way to provide security and privacy in peer-to-peer networks with similar topologies to IoT. This paper proposes an integrated framework for implementing IoT with blockchain technology to guarantee high level of security and validation process based on the integration between consensus algorithms of blockchain (PBFT and Tangle). In addition, this paper proposes a direction algorithm to direct IoT transactions to appropriate BC algorithm to be validated by PBFT or Tangle. The propose framework ensure security, scalability and high performance by optimizing the data transmission overhead and enhancing the validation process by using the propose direction algorithm with reducing both of the resource utilization and the latency time. The conducted experimental results for the propose framework state that the latency time is reduced by 50% than using each consensus BC algorithm separately and mitigate the apprehensive from Sybil attack because of the load balance between consensus algorithms and the dynamic of validation.


  1. "The Growth in Connected IoT Devices Is Expected to generate 79.4ZB of Data in 2025, According to a New IDC Forecast", IDC: The premier global market intelligence company, 2019. [Online]. Available:
  2. R. Minerva, A. Biru and D. Rotondi, Towards a definition of the Internet of Things (IoT), 1st ed. IEEE, 2015.
  3. [Online]. Available:
  4. INFSO D.4 Networked Enterprise &RFIDINFSO G.2Micro &Nanosystemsin co-operation with theWORKING GROUP RFID OF the ETPEPOSS, Internet Of Things in 2020, Roadmap for The future, Version 1.1 (27 May, 2008)
  5. D. Evans, The Internet of Things How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything. Cisco IBSG, 2011.
  6. "Barcelona Smart City: most remarkable Example of Implementation", Engineers & Architects, 2019. [Online]. Available:
  7. S. Bhattacharjee, M. Salimitari, M. Chatterjee, K. Kwiat and C. Kamhoua, "Preserving Data Integrity in IoT Networks Under Opportunistic Data Manipulation", 2017 IEEE 15th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 15th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 3rd Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech), 2017. Available: 10.1109/dasc-picom-datacom-cyberscitec.2017.87
  8. A. Sultan, M. Mushtaq and M. Abubakar, "IOT Security Issues Via Blockchain", Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Blockchain Technology - ICBCT 2019, 2019. Available: 10.1145/3320154.3320163 .
  9. K. Christidis and M. DevetsikIoTis, "Blockchains and Smart Contracts for the Internet of Things", IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 2292-2303, 2016. Available: 10.1109/access.2016.2566339 .
  10. S. Huh, S. Cho and S. Kim, Managing IoT Devices using Blockchain Platform.ICACT, 2017.
  11. M. Khan and K. Salah, "IoT security: Review, blockchain solutions, and open challenges", Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 82, pp. 395-411, 2018. Available: 10.1016/j.future.2017.11.022 .
  12. P. Kumar and R. Kunwar, A Survey Report on : Security & Challenges in Internet of Things. 2016.
  13. D. Das and B. Sharma, "General Survey on Security Issues on Internet of Things", International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 23-29, 2016. Available: 10.5120/ijca2016909113.
  14. K. Zhao and L. Ge, "A Survey on the Internet of Things Security", 2013 Ninth International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, 2013. Available: 10.1109/cis.2013.145.
  15. Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H. Dai, X. Chen and H. Wang, "An Overview of Blockchain Technology: Architecture, Consensus, and Future Trends", 2017 IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress), 2017. Available: 10.1109/bigdatacongress.2017.85.
  16. W. Gao, W. Hatcher and W. Yu, "A Survey of Blockchain: Techniques, Applications, and Challenges", 2018 27th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN), 2018. Available: 10.1109/icccn.2018.8487348.
  17. M. Salimitari and M. Chatterjee, A Survey on Consensus Protocols in Blockchain for IoT Networks., 2019.
  18. "Blockchain consensus for the Internet of Things | IEEE Standards University", IEEE Standards University. [Online].Available:
  19. M. Maroufi, R. Abdolee and B. Tazehkand, "On the Convergence of Blockchain and Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies", Journal of Strategic Innovation and Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 1, 2019. Available: 10.33423/jsis.v14i1.990.
  20. S. Zoican, M. Vochin, R. Zoican and D. Galatchi, "Blockchain and Consensus Algorithms in Internet of Things", 2018 International Symposium on Electronics and Telecommunications (ISETC), 2018. Available: 10.1109/isetc.2018.8583923.
  21. L. Hang and D. Kim, "Design and Implementation of an Integrated IoT Blockchain Platform for Sensing Data Integrity", Sensors, vol. 19, no. 10, p. 2228, 2019. Available: 10.3390/s19102228.
  22. F. Jindal, S. Mudgal, V. Choudhari and P. Churi, "Emerging trends in Internet of Things", 2018 Fifth HCT Information Technology Trends (ITT), 2018. Available: 10.1109/ctit.2018.8649535.
  23. S. Nakamoto, Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  24. "Survey Analysis: 2016 Internet of Things Backbone Survey", Gartner, 2020. [Online]. Available:
  25. M. Miraz, "Blockchain of Things (BCoT): The Fusion of Blockchain and IoT Technologies", Studies in Big Data, pp. 141-159, 2019. Available: 10.1007/978-981-13-8775-3_7 .
  26. A. Srivastava, P. Bhattacharya, A. Singh and A. Mathur, A Systematic Review on Evolution of Blockchain Generations. 2018.
  27. K. Biswas and V. Muthukkumarasamy, "Securing Smart Cities Using Blockchain Technology", 2016 IEEE 18th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 14th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS), 2016. Available: 10.1109/hpcc-smartcity-dss.2016.0198
  28. K. Prabhu and K. Prabhu, Converging blockchain technology with the internet of things. International Education and Research Journal, 2017.
  29. M. Banerjee, J. Lee and K. Choo, "A blockchain future for internet of things security: a position paper", Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 149-160, 2018. Available: 10.1016/j.dcan.2017.10.006.
  30. A. Zorzo, H. Nunes, R. Lunardi, R. Michelin and S. Kanhere, "Dependable IoT Using Blockchain-Based Technology", 2018 Eighth Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing (LADC), 2018. Available: 10.1109/ladc.2018.00010 .
  31. I. Makhdoom, M. Abolhasan and W. Ni, "Blockchain for IoT: The Challenges and a Way Forward", Proceedings of the 15th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications, 2018. Available: 10.5220/0006905605940605 .
  32. T. Fernandez-Carames and P. Fraga-Lamas, "A Review on the Use of Blockchain for the Internet of Things", IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 32979-33001, 2018. Available: 10.1109/access.2018.2842685.
  33. H. Dai, Z. Zheng and Y. Zhang, "Blockchain for Internet of Things: A Survey", IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 8076-8094, 2019. Available: 10.1109/jIoT.2019.2920987 .
  34. M. Ferdous, K. Biswas, M. Chowdhury, N. Chowdhury and V. Muthukkumarasamy, "Integrated platforms for blockchain enablement", Advances in Computers, pp. 41-72, 2019. Available: 10.1016/bs.adcom.2019.01.001
  35. Sagirlar, G.; Carminati, B.; Ferrari, E.; Sheehan, J.D.; Ragnoli, E. Hybrid-iot: Hybrid blockchain architecture for internet of things-pow sub-blockchains. arXiv 2018, arXiv:1804.03903.
  36. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 10- Aug- 2020].
  37. Gartner 2019 Hype Cycle for Blockchain Business Shows Blockchain Will Have a Transformational Impact across Industries in Five to 10 Years", Gartner, [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 10- Aug- 2020].
  38. Cook D. CASAS smart home project, 2017,


IoT, IoT Security, Blockchain, Consensus algorithms, PBFT, Tangle