Call for Paper

CAE solicits original research papers for the July 2023 Edition. Last date of manuscript submission is June 30, 2023.

Read More

A Study of Time-Domain and Frequency- Domain Techniques in Electromagnetics

Raji A. Abimbola. Published in Applied Sciences.

Communications on Applied Electronics
Year of Publication: 2017
Publisher: Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA
Authors: Raji A. Abimbola

Raji A Abimbola. A Study of Time-Domain and Frequency- Domain Techniques in Electromagnetics. Communications on Applied Electronics 7(9):14-18, November 2017. BibTeX

	author = {Raji A. Abimbola},
	title = {A Study of Time-Domain and Frequency- Domain Techniques in Electromagnetics},
	journal = {Communications on Applied Electronics},
	issue_date = {November 2017},
	volume = {7},
	number = {9},
	month = {Nov},
	year = {2017},
	issn = {2394-4714},
	pages = {14-18},
	numpages = {5},
	url = {},
	doi = {10.5120/cae2017652713},
	publisher = {Foundation of Computer Science (FCS), NY, USA},
	address = {New York, USA}


Before the advent of digital computer, analytical techniques were used for determining idealized solutions of electromagnetic problems, most especially problems of simple geometry or design. When the size of the problem becomes large that the analytical technique is unable to yield solutions of desired accuracy, approximate solutions are sought by using digital computer and numerical technique. This paper examines various numerical techniques suitable for solving electromagnetic problems. It is emphasized in the paper, the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques in tackling a particular problem. Because of the significance of retarded potentials in formulating integral equations that are solved by method of moment technique, effort is also geared towards deriving expressions for these potentials when sources are constrained to the axis, surface and volume of the conducting body.


  1. Huang Y., and Boyle K. (2008). Antennas from Theory to Practice. John Wiley and Sons, United Kingdom, 1st Edition, 215-217.
  2. Balanis C.A. 1992. Antenna Theory: A Review. Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 80, No. 1, 7-23.
  3. Sarka T.K., Djordjevic A.R., and Kolundzija B.M. 2002. Handbook of Antennas in Wireless Communication, CRC Press, New York, 860.
  4. Bonderson A., Rylander T., and Ingelston P. 2005. Computational Electromagnetics. Springer Science Business Media Incorporated, New York, 1st Edition , 2-5.
  5. Taflove A., and Umanshankar K.R. 1989. Review of FD-TD Numerical Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Scattering and Radar Cross-section. Proceeding IEEE, Vol. 77, 682-699.
  6. Taflove A., and M.E. Brodwin. Numerical Solution of Steady-State Electromagnetic Scattering Problems Using the Time Dependent Maxwell’s Equations. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory, Vol. MTT-23, 623-630.
  7. Taflove A., and Umanshankar K.R., Beker B., Harfoush F., and Yee K.S. 1988. Detailed FD-TD Analysis of Electromagnetic Fields Penetrating Narrow Slots and Lapped Joints in Thick Conducting Screens. IEEE Antennas Trans. Propagation, Vol. 36, 247-257.
  8. Maloney G., Smith G.S., Scott W.R. 1990. Accurate Computation of the Radiation from Simple Antennas Using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Vol. 38, No. 7, 1059-1068.
  9. Tirkas P.A., and Balanis C.A. 1992. Finite-Difference Time-Domain Techniques for Antenna Radiation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 40, No. 3, 334-340.
  10. Katz D.S. 1991. FDTD Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Radiation from Systems Containing Horn Antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 8, 1203-1212.
  11. Yee K.S. 1966. Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problems involving Maxwell’s Equations in Isotropic Media. IEEE transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-14, No. 3, 302-307.
  12. Weili M., 2004). Discrete Green’s Function Formulation of the FDTD Method and its Application. Ph.D Research thesis, Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom, 1.
  13. Johns P.B., and Butler G. 1983. The Consistency and Accuracy of the TLM Method for Diffusion and its Relationships to Existing Methods. Int. Journal of Numerical Methods Eng., Vol. 19, 1549-1554.
  14. Johns P.B., 1987. A Symmetrical Condensed Node for the TLM Method. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Technique, Vol. MTT-35, No. 4, 370-377.
  15. Jin J. 2002. The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2nd Edition, 20-25.
  16. Harrington, R.F. 1967. Matrix Methods for Field Problems. Proc. IEEE, Vol. 55, No., 136-149.
  17. Harrington R.F. 1993. Field Computation by Moment Methods. Macmillan Publishing Company, 1-15.
  18. Adekola S.A., Mowete I.A., and Ayorinde A.A. 2009. Compact Theory of the Broadband Elliptical Helical Antenna. European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 31, No. 3. 446-490.
  19. Adekola S.A., and Mowete I.A. 1992. Moment-Method Determination of the Surface Currents and Fields Radiated by Rectangular Micro strip Patch Antennas. International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 73, No. 4, 792-804.
  20. Ayorinde A.A., Adekola S.A., and Mowete A.I. 2015. A Moment-Method Analysis of a Thin-wire Chirex-Coil Antenna. PIERS Proceedings, 112-117.
  21. Mowete I.A., Ogunsola A. 2010. Plane Wave Scattering by a Coated Thin Wire. PIERS Proceedings, 743-749.
  22. Pathak P.H. 1992. High-Frequency Techniques for Antenna Analysis. IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 80, No. 1, 44-65.


Analytic technique, frequency domain technique, method of moments and time domain technique.